Thermal illumination dating

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measures emitted radiation in 18 thermal infrared bands and reflected radiation in one visible band.These data have a spatial resolution of 8 km and 13-bit radiometric resolution.One satellite crosses the equator in the early morning from north-to-south while the other crosses in the afternoon.The primary sensor on board the NOAA satellites, used for both meteorology and small-scale Earth observation and reconnaissance, is the .The GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) System is the follow-up to the ATS series.They were designed by NASA for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to provide the United States National Weather Service with frequent, small-scale imaging of the Earth's surface and cloud cover.The AVHRR sensor detects radiation in the visible, near and mid infrared, and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, over a swath width of 3000 km.The accompanying table, outlines the AVHRR bands, their wavelengths and spatial resolution (at swath nadir), and general applications of each.

Data can be transmitted directly to the ground and viewed as data are collected, or recorded on board the satellite for later transmission and processing.Today, several countries operate weather, or meteorological satellites to monitor weather conditions around the globe.Generally speaking, these satellites use sensors which have fairly coarse spatial resolution (when compared to systems for observing land) and provide large areal coverage.Their temporal resolutions are generally quite high, providing frequent observations of the Earth's surface, atmospheric moisture, and cloud cover, which allows for near-continuous monitoring of global weather conditions, and hence - forecasting.Here we review a few of the representative satellites/sensors used for meteorological applications.

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